COVID References

Excellent quick overview: Spread, prior pandemic connection, waves, herd immunity, testing. April 17, 2020. Oncology Times. “Life in the Time of COVID 19”

Mechanism and physiology of disease: April 17, Science. “How does coronavirus kill?”

Physiology and blood clots: May 8, Nature. Coronavirus Blood-clot Mystery Intensifies

What does post-COVID survival look like and why? Science “Survivors’ Burden” ICU, prolonged intubation, different drugs, inability to use protocols re delirium

Post-COVID side effects are lasting. “The Atlantic” June 4, 2020, Ed Yong. ‘COVID-19 Can Last for Several Months’



May 19. Science “Why Do Some COVID pts Infect Many Others…” review of some of the thoughts on super-spreading (singing; concentrated people, breathing heavily)

CDC: Particle spread in China restaurant:

CDC, March 2020: High COVID Attack Rate Among Attendees at Events at a Church—Arkansas, March 2020:

COVID-19 compared to prior SARS-COVID. Report on experimental aerosols showed it remained viable at 3 hours. Viable virus detected at 72 hrs on plastic and 48 hrs on stainless steel, but non after 4 hrs on copper and 24 hrs on cardboard. Note this was all theoretical with swabbing and not actual animal or human models. March 17, 2020. To the Editor, New England Journal of Medicine, “Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared with SARS-CoV-1”.

Why we should all wear masks; discussion on particle spread. May 27, 2020. Science.

‘Successful’ control of outbreak in a nursing home in Los Angeles(1 died) May 22, 2020. CDC

Very few viable virus particles found on surfaces in COVID positive homes. Preprinted paper. ‘SARS-COV-2 in environmental samples of quarantine households.’ June 2, 2020.

COVID in companion animals appears to only go one direction, from people to animals. CDC report. June 8,2020.

It probably took off in February, not in January—we could have done better. MY 26, 2020. “-New Research Rewrites History of When Covid-19 Took Off In the U.S.” STAT

New Zealand’s hardline control worked. New Scientist, June 23.


Fascinating article on range of COVID particle sizes, humidity, “wetability” etc. that result in contagion. Hypothesize that they are viable in stagnant air for up to 3 hours for exposure of healthy people. Study done in a medical office. Hypothesizes that the ultrafine particles might cause transmission, and would explain the family clusters in restaurants (p.4). Also connects high humidity to inactivation and poor aerosol transmission. April 7, 2020. “Bioaerosol Size Effect in COVID-19 Transmission.”

Mutations/strains: May 6, Atlantic. “The Problem with Stories About Dangerous Strains” mutations versus strains, by Ed Yong.

Covid strains graph:



Death toll may actually be higher: April 26. Financial Times “Global Death Toll May Be 60% Higher” statistical analysis

Analysis on SanFran versus NYC and the different death tolls: May 16. Propublica: “Two Coasts One Virus. How NY Suffered Nearly 10 Times the Number of Deaths as California”

July 2020 Scientific American: “Antibody Tests Have A Mathematical Pitfall”



Challenges with vaccines: April 28, Nature “The guide to coronavirus vaccines”

Herd immunity: May 14, Reuters. Only 4.4% of French Population Infected by Coronavirus” Herd Immunity; reuters summation of how it isn’t happening in France:

Herd Immunity: Based on May 13, Science Magazine: Estimating the Burden of SARS- CoV-2 in France

Herd immunity isn’t happening any time soon: Estimates are for 60% of the populations, currently NYC has 20%, London18%, Madrid, 11.3, Wuhan, 10%, Boston 10%, Barcelona 7, Stockholm region 7.3%. May 28, 2020. NYT: “The World Is Still Far From Herd Immunity for Coronavirus”

Hydrochloroquine increased risk of death in hospital (study stopped d/t risk). May 22, 2020. The Lancet. “Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine with or without a macrolide for treatment of COVID-19: a Multinational Registry Analysis.


COVID q&a Things to do and don’t as states open up (older) May 7, 2020 The Atlantic